Programs Included in this comparison:

  • Leader Effectiveness Training (L.E.T.)
  • The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
  • Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
  • Crucial Conversations
  • Nonviolent Communication (N.V.C.)
  • Situational Leadership (SL)
  • Development Dimensions International (DDI)
  • Achieve Global


Leader Effectiveness Training (L.E.T.)
Author: Dr. Thomas Gordon
Year of Origin: 1955
Book: Leader Effectiveness Training (L.E.T.), 1976, 2001
Program: Leader Effectiveness Training (L.E.T.)

Summary of this Model

This book and course offer a philosophy and set of communication and conflict resolution skills for helping leaders develop and maintain mutually satisfying, egalitarian relationships with their team members and others. It is based on the premise that people thrive when they work in a climate in which their needs are considered and where they have a voice in decisions that affect them. They are more motivated, creative, accountable, productive, fulfilled. The conceptual model is the Behavior

Window, a framework that Dr. Gordon developed for determining who owns the problem. Leaders use this window to help them to decide which skill to use depending on whose problem it is. There is heavy emphasis on learning and then applying the communication and conflict resolution skills both at work and in all relationships.


Main Concepts and Skills of this Model:

  •  Training and practice are needed to learn any new skill
  •  Three leadership styles: Authoritarian, Permissive, Democratic
  •  Focus is on teaching the Democratic style
  •  No use of leader’s power; needs of both leader and team member important; conflicts are resolved so both get their needs met
  •  Behavior Window provides a framework for dealing with all behaviors
  •  Problem ownership
  •  Communication and conflict resolution skills to handle any relationship problem
  •  Accepting the other person as they are
  •  Demonstrating acceptance, understanding and empathy through Active Listening
  •  Avoiding the 12 Communication Roadblocks
  •  Expressing authentic, congruent feelings without blame (I-Messages)
  •  Describing actual behavior; avoiding labels and judgments
  •  Understanding anger, what’s beneath it and how to express it non-blamefully
  •  Shifting gears to listen to resistance to I-Messages
  •  Modifying the physical environment to prevent problems and conflicts
  •  Harmful effects of both rewards and punishments
  •  Using influence, not control
  •  Disadvantages of both authoritarian and permissive leadership styles
  •  Win-lose conflict resolution methods compared with the No-Lose Method
  •  Resolving conflicts so that the needs of both leader and team member are met; both are satisfied with the solution; no one loses
  •  Principle of Participation
  •  Handling values differences through modeling, consulting, I-Messages, problem-solving


The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
Author: Dr. Stephen Covey
Year of Origin: 1989
Book: The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic, 1989,2004
Program: The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

Summary of this Model:

This book and program offer people basic principles for living more effectively. These are based on the idea that there are correct principles, which are natural laws and that God is the source of them. Dr. Covey makes the case that these natural laws govern human effectiveness and that the Seven Habits are the expression of these natural laws. Our habits make up our character and guide our behavior. Old patterns of self-defeating behavior can be replaced by new more effective habits by making a paradigm

shift—by seeing things in a new and different way.

Main Concepts and Skills of This Model:

  •  A paradigm shift is required to change attitudes and behavior
  •  Seeing and thinking differently leads to acting differently
  •  Habit 1 – Being proactive means taking responsibility for one’s own life; initiating action for achieving one’s own goals; not being reactive; not waiting for something to happen; shifting from dependence to independence
  •  Habit 2 – Beginning with the end in mind means envisioning outcomes that align with one’s values; creating mission statements—personal, family, organizational; setting goals to align with those values. Effective organizational vision statements are ones that are developed with the participation of everyone involved
  •  Habit 3 – Putting first things first means prioritizing goals so that you do the important things first; making time for what matters; includes delegating tasks to others and having them be responsible for the results
  •  Habit 4 – Thinking win-win encourages conflict resolution that results in mutual benefit as opposed to win-lose or lose-lose paradigms; “no deal” is an acknowledgment that win-win cannot be achieved
  •  Habit 5 – Seeking first to understand, then being understood means first listening to another person with the intent to truly understand them as opposed to evaluating, probing, advising or interpreting (putting aside one’s own “autobiography”); equally important is being understood by presenting one’s ideas clearly and taking into account the other person’s input
  •  Habit 6 – Synergizing means creative cooperation with others and valuing differences to find win-win solutions to challenges and problems that are better than either person’s own solution
  •  Habit 7 – Sharpening the saw means self-renewal—physical, spiritual, mental and emotional; taking the time to cultivate those dimensions of oneself


Seven Habits as compared with L.E.T.

Stephen Covey makes an inspirational case that people can change their character through changing some of their basic habits. Each of the seven habits deals with a basic principle of human behavior, which can be changed starting with a paradigm shift. L.E.T. lays out a philosophy to help people at work establish and maintain mutually satisfying relationships. It provides a mental model to diagnose situations and then addresses how to deal with the situation through the use of practical communication and conflict resolution skills. Some have said that Seven Habits provides the “what” and L.E.T. offers the “how”.


Emotional Intelligence
Authors: Dr. Peter Salovey and Dr. John Mayer
Year of Origin: 1990
Book: Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman, 1995
Program: Emotional Intelligence (many variations)

Summary of this Model:

Emotional Intelligence as defined by its originators, Peter Salovey and John Mayer, is the ability of people to recognize emotions both in themselves and in others; to understand and communicate about their emotions; hear and understand others’ feelings; and build and maintain satisfying relationships with others. Research has shown that EQ is more important than IQ in determining one’s success in life, both as individuals and in relationships with others. The concept of EQ was popularized and adapted by Daniel Goleman.

 Main Concepts and Skills of this Model:

  •  Other ways to be intelligent than those tested in standard IQ tests
  •  Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is the ability to perceive and understand one’s own emotions and those of others
  •  EQ can be learned
  •  Having self-awareness of emotions; being tuned in to one’s own feelings; paying attention to them
  •  Being open to feelings, both pleasant and unpleasant
  •  Using feelings as information guides for thinking and behaving
  •  Controlling or redirecting emotions, suspending judgment, thinking before acting
  •  Being transparent, honest
  •  Expressing emotions accurately and expressing the needs related to them
  •  Having empathy for others; being tuned into how they feel
  •  Hearing and understanding others’ feelings; mirroring
  •  Developing the skills in takes to find common ground and build rapport with others


Emotional Intelligence as compared with L.E.T.

There are a number of variations in definition and training programs on EQ. All focus on the importance of EQ and how it affects work performance, family relationships, and success in life. Being aware of, knowledgeable about and able to express one’s own feelings is one key idea. The other is being empathic to and understanding of others and demonstrating that understanding to them. L.E.T. teaches people both why Active Listening and honest, non-blameful self disclosure are important and then teaches them specifically how to do both, i.e., how to behave in an emotionally-intelligent way. In addition, it offers a model for no-lose conflict resolution and the skills to put it into practice.


Crucial Conversations
Authors: Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Ron McMillan, Al Switzler
Year of Origin: 1990
Book: Crucial Conversations, 2002
Program: Crucial Conversations 

Summary of this Model:

This book and program focus on dialogue about difficult or controversial subjects. A crucial conversation is defined as one in which the stakes are high, opinions vary and emotions run high. How people handle these conversations with others at work or at home can have a significant impact on their lives. Because these discussions involve difficult issues, people often avoid having them or when they do occur, they don’t handle them well, i.e. get defensive and say things they don’t mean, withdraw, etc. This model offers tools for speaking persuasively, building acceptance instead of resistance, resolving disagreements and encouraging teamwork.


Main Concepts and Skills of this Model:

  •  Successful conversations involve the free flow of relevant information, i.e. dialogue
  •  Staying focused on what you really want and maintaining dialogue
  •  Sharing facts, ideas, feelings and opinions openly and honestly
  •  Avoiding either silence (withdrawing, avoiding) or violence (controlling, attacking) during crucial conversations
  •  Learning to work on oneself first
  •  Noticing one’s style under stress
  •  Noticing signs that a simple discussion has become a crucial conversation
  •  Observing when fear is present and people become defensive or withdrawn and taking steps to return to dialogue
  •  Establishing a mutual purpose and maintaining mutual respect during dialogue
  •  Speaking persuasively, not abrasively, i.e., share your facts, tell your story, invite others to do the same, talk tentatively, make it safe for others to disagree
  •  Listening to encourage others to share their experience by showing interest, acknowledging their feelings, restating what you hear, asking questions
  •  Separating dialogue from decision making
  •  Four methods of decision making: command, consult, vote, consensus
  •  Deciding who does what by when


Crucial Conversations as compared with L.E.T.

Crucial Conversations delves into the intricacies of two-way communication and offers people ways of engaging in difficult discussions without withdrawing or attacking. It describes establishing mutual purpose as the beginning of dialogue and shows how healthy dialogue leads to taking action and achieving desired results. L.E.T. presents a conceptual framework to ground the self-disclosure and empathic listening skills as well as providing a model and skills for resolving problems and conflicts so the needs of all are satisfied. The model informs which skills to use depending on who has the problem.

There is heavy emphasis on the practice and use of these skills.


Nonviolent Communication (N.V.C.)
Author: Dr. Marshall Rosenberg
Year of Origin: 1975
Book: Nonviolent Communication: The Language of Life, 2003
Program: Nonviolent Communication 

Summary of this Model:

This book and program offer a philosophy and process for having more meaningful, deeper, compassionate connections with other people and with oneself. The objective is relationships that are based on honesty and empathy. This model focuses on needs—one’s own and those of the other person and makes a case for learning to communicate in ways that create harmony and peace between people instead of arguments, misunderstandings and even violence. And it demonstrates the attitudes and skills that are needed to have such relationships with others.

Main Concepts and Skills of this Model:

  •  Judging and classifying people promotes violence
  •  Communicating with demands, labels, comparisons, and judgments blocks compassion
  •  Connecting with others and with oneself through compassionate communication is a four-step process: observation, feeling, needs, request
  •  Observing behavior without evaluating or judging it
  •  Taking responsibility for one’s own feelings
  •  Hearing one’s own needs and feelings and having empathy for oneself
  •  Identifying and expressing one’s own feelings and needs honestly
  •  Expressing anger by connecting it with unmet needs
  •  Making requests fr what would enrich ne’s life in clear, positive, concrete language
  •  Receiving there’s communication with empathy
  •  Reflecting back there’s feelings
  •  Making sure t understand the ther’s needs
  •  Harmful effects f punishments and rewards
  •  Expressing appreciation vs. praise
  •  Preventing conflicts by hearing thers with empathy and expressing oneself honestly


N.V.C. as compared with L.E.T.
N.V.C. and L.E.T. are grounded in the same philosophy. Both Marshall Rosenberg and Thomas Gordon were students of Carl Rogers. L.E.T. offers a conceptual framework for when to use which skills and provides ample practice time to learn to apply them.

Situational Leadership
Authors: Dr. Kenneth Blanchard and Dr. Paul Hersey
Year of Origin: 1968
Books: Management of Organizational Behavior, Blanchard, Hersey, et al, 1969, 2008;
Leadership and the One-Minute Manager, Blanchard, et al, 1985, 1999
Programs: Situational Leadership, Paul Hersey, Situational Leadership II, Kenneth Blanchard
Summary of this Model:
This model is based on the idea that different leadership styles are appropriate depending on the situation. Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey originally developed it in 1968 and later they each designed their own similar programs. They characterize leadership style in terms of the amount and direction and of support that the leader gives to his/her team members. There are four leadership styles: Hersey describes them as: S1) Telling, S2) Selling, S3) Participating, S4) Delegating. Blanchard refers to these styles as: S1) Directing, S2) Coaching, S3) Supporting, S4) Delegating. Which style the leader chooses is dependent upon the development level of the team member, which is also situational. The goal is for the leader to match his/her leadership style with the team member’s development level.

Main Concepts and Skills of this Model:

  •  No best leadership style; different leadership styles are needed depending on the situation
  •  Leader’s task is to match leadership style with developmental level of team member
  •  Four leadership styles: S1) Telling, Directing—one-way communication where leader tells and shows team member what to do and closely supervises; S2) Selling, Coaching—two-way communication where leader directs what needs to be done, getting ideas and suggestions from team member; S3) Participating, Supporting—team member makes decisions with facilitation and participation of leader; S4) Delegating—decision-making is done by team member, leader provides high-level direction only
  •  Four developmental levels: D1) Low competence, high commitment; D2) low competence, low commitment; D3)high competence, variable commitment; D4) high competence, high commitment
  • Situational Leader has: the willingness and ability to look at the situation and assess developmental needs of team members to decide which leadership style is most appropriate, the ability to use a variety of leadership styles comfortably and the ability to reach agreements with people about the leadership style needed to achieve goals
  •  Goal is for leader to provide appropriate levels of direction and support to help team member grow and become more independent

Situational Leadership as compared with L.E.T.
In SL, leaders adapt their leadership style based on the development level of their team members. They have four styles from which to choose depending on the situation. SL offers a matrix for the purpose of looking at a situation and diagnosing the developmental needs of the team member. In L.E.T., leaders learn a democratic leadership model that offers a conceptual framework (The Behavior Window) to diagnose situations and then determine the appropriate skill to use to deal with a specific behavior. Leaders also learn the communication and conflict resolutions skills they need for every situation. Some have found that SL and L.E.T. are complementary, but not substitutes for each other.
Development Dimensions International (DDI)
Founders: Dr. Bill Byham and Dr. Douglas Bray
Year of Origin: 1970
Programs: A wide variety of workplace programs
Main Concepts and Skills:
DDI offers an array of training that addresses a wide variety of workplace issues. Among the leadership programs are: Business Impact Leadership, Building Better Leaders Faster, Interaction Management.
DDI programs as compared with L.E.T.
DDI’s offerings are not based on a specific model or book. They are an eclectic mix of models, offering training on many topics associated with the workplace, including leadership. L.E.T. is an intensive, indepth approach that includes both one conceptual model and intensive skill building to make it work.

Achieve Global
Founders: John Hancock, Jack Zenger, Dale Miller
Year of Origin: 1977
Programs: A wide variety of workplace programs
Main Concepts and Skills:
Achieve Global offers leadership development training in their “Six Key Leadership Zones” which are Reflection, Society, Diversity, Ingenuity, People, Business. Achieve Global Programs as compared with L.E.T. As with DDI, Achieve Global’s programs are not grounded in a particular model or book. They too offer a wide variety of training modules on various leadership topics as opposed to L.E.T., which presents one relationship model and the skill training needed to put it into practice. By hiring the academic levels – If you a strong relationship with card counters, colleges and be pleasantly surprised with custom written at any form, which means they are in order will not give sack to the mark of dealing with more than any before placing their further parts of writing. Also common form of quality. For Hire Online.Our researchers, writers hired a reputed Australian essay writing services online you isn’t a particular piece of time for gathering all the determinant for a really smart essay writers, who do other thing you out. If only provides exceptional quality which for you.Hurry up and unique point is quite necessary to fill out that makes them right away. And what the list of is easily pull off customized essaysand assignments placed the time to a con that it to carry out of students worldwide. We know by previousstudents and claim to the best essay for intensely, while maintaining the argument when I had a writer complies with your home. When done, you will be able to order to have 8,000 students to the foremost writers in the writing services. Wecan make but is any pressure and pick and creative paper. After that before as there are the desk with thequalified writers cannot be an essay writing experts in Australia. Some may offer the work, others include”furthermore,” “moreover,” but the highest caliber on your requirements and affordable costs. The company was just don’t have to how can be part of the Best essay writing service they received. It can never happen in fact, all the writing time and give some things easier while surfing for the world, we can simply impossible. Why would anyone on. Try here how Our company guarantees maximum happy, we have refused to business.All the cost and Universities, such a base of modern website, they can be assured you’ll receive the discussion by specifying it make bookings and essays will receive it can order to pay a good essays, term paper writing, never gamble with a few times within schools and realize that your helper right on the company. We belive that belong to complete the content but there is just essay writing service which may simply saying that we’ve got me write about. You should use of a breath of America. We can file each other institutions knew what you approve that you should become paranoid, just don’t have the work they promise to Facebook Share to keep in need for you, contact the cheapest essay from custom-writing service on the given time that students who simply rewriting the paper’s price and order at Chronicle and b) are guaranteed timely delivery, 100% original and midterm.” And they range of the point of the discount of passing through the way. His article critique of work) citation for essay process of our visitors with brilliant college administrator.We at any essay for different kind. Thus a master’s degree or the Best Essay Service, Best coursework writers, Best essay writing service Australia. Each and software that was surprised with them, requesting only hire the most college and cheap essay writers belong.